In in­dus­trial ma­nu­­fac­tu­ring pro­cess water often is cha­ra­cte­rized by high le­vels of par­tic­les or ad­di­tives. Re­liable mo­ni­to­ring helps to main­tain ef­fi­cient water ma­na­ge­ment of­fe­ring high sa­ving po­ten­tial.

Industrial Manufacturing


The production in the pulp and paper industry requires large amounts of water. The German Waste Water Ordinance implies that the resulting effluent has to be tested on the content of chemical oxygen demand (COD). In comparison with conventional testing methods the use of online COD analyzers offers high savings and also enables efficient water management.



Types of Water

  • Process water
  • Cooling water
  • Surface water
  • Water influent
  • Water effluent
  • Boiler feed water
  • Condensate return
  • Industrial waste water
  • Discharge control
  • Oil-in-Water
  • High salt concentrations

Reuse of Water, Effective Water Management and High Process Safety

In the steel industry water is of high importance. It is used for

  • Cooling
  • Steam generation 
  • Waste transfer
  • Dust control

As heat is used in any manufacturing process of the steel industry, the major need of water is for cooling purposes of the various facilities such as the furnace body and the actual products.

Less than 10% of this water is actually consumed. The majority is reused in recirculating systems, for example, when waste water from direct cooling is recycled back after adding make-up water. Another way to improve water efficiency is to recycle waste water and cascading water use from higher to lower quality.

Water effluents are those waters that cannot be recycled back even after treatment. Steel plants that aim for zero discharge of water effluents will treat the water to enhance its quality and use it for example in raw material dust suppression. Other plants will treat the effluents to comply emission limits in order to discharge it back to natural sources such as rivers and lakes.

Nevertheless, the monitoring of the water quality is crucial for efficient water circulation and safe plant operation.

The manufacturing process of pulp and paper requires huge amounts of water. The major part of this process water is recycled within a closed water system used for

  • manufacturing - suspension, transport of pulp
  • supportive purposes - cooling water, seal water
  • cleaning purposes - sieve and felt cleaning, system cleaning

To prevent an increase in concentration and a loss of quality of the ingredients, a small amount of waste water is discharged, which is then replaced by fresh water.

During paper production about 10 m³ liters waste water is produced per 1 tonne of air dried product, during pulp production it is about 40 m³ waste water per 1 tonne pulp.

Waste waster from pulp & paper manufacturing is characterized by

  • high concentration of organic pollutants
  • high amount of fibres and particles
  • partialy toxic substances (biocides)
  • a variety of chemical additives

In the effluent of a paper mill, the monitoring of COD or TOC is of importance to determine the organic load. It is the only way to identify production losses easily and buffer problematic loads. The waste water treatment plant operators can better estimate the required cleaning performance and control it efficiently. The COD can also be determined by correlation with TOC (total organic carbon).

Additionally, the parameter TN (total bound nitrogen) is recommended for monitoring because an optimal cleaning performance needs a certain ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus. Furthermore, the waste water toxicity should be tested. Chemicals such as biocides or chlorine, which are added to avoid mold, can significantly affect the biology of a waste water treatment plant.

  • Tailor-made Analyzers for Paper Manufacturing

    product picutre COD analyzer for waste water, QuickCODultra

    Depending on the requirements, LAR offers the best solution as its methods operate analytically correct, fast and clean. Due to the ultra-high temperature of 1,200 °C, the complete oxidation of the sample is guaranteed and the XY injection system prevents clogging and carry-over effects.

    Using LAR analyzers operators optimize their water management significantly:

    • Firstly, it is possible to control the discharge of waste water into the waste water treatment plants or buffer tanks.
    • Secondly, lab costs are eliminated as the expense for the COD lab analysis are no longer needed.

    LAR's TOC analyzer QuickTOCultra is the most reliable measurement system for the roughest waste water applications. Due to an unrivaled injection and oxidation technique, the QuickTOCultra easily handles sticky, fatty, salty, and high-particle samples unlike other TOC analyzers.

    The combustion leader in TOC analysis provides maximum reliability and availability, hence also profitability for its operators.

  • COD Analyzer for Laboratories


    The QuickCODlab laboratory analyzer is the master plan for fast and clean COD measurements. Unlike traditional COD analysis methods, the QuickCODlab oxidizes the water sample without the need of any hazardous chemicals. Due to the patented high-temperature combustion method, the measurement results are free of chloride inteferences.

    Less chemicals. Simple operation. Save money.

  • Online COD Analyzer

    LAR's chemical oxygen demand (COD) analyzer QuickCODultra is an outstanding measurement system for fast and clean COD measurements. Unlike traditional COD analysis methods, the QuickCODultra oxidizes water samples without the need of any hazardous chemicals. Due to the patented high-temperature combustion method, the measurement results are free of chloride inteferences. Moreover, the analyzer easily handles sticky, fatty, salty, and high-particle samples.

    Less chemicals. Simple operation. Save money.


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