Energy & Refining

Maintain high product quality of refining products.

Energy & Refining


Power generation is the process of converting / trans­forming primary energy sources (e.g. oil, natural gas, and hydro) into easy-to-use and easy-to-transport energy (secondary energy), e.g. electricity. For that purpose, there are several methods of ge­ne­ra­ting elec­tri­city available such as power plants. The pro­ces­sing and refinement of primary energy sources relies on refineries.



Types of Water

  • Water influent
  • Water effluent
  • Process water
  • Cooling water
  • Surface water
  • Boiler feed water
  • Condensate return
  • Discharge control


Electricity generators are driven by thermal energy sources geothermal energy, nuclear power, chemical energy or mechanical energy of turbines (kinetic energy) from wind power and hydro power.

In petroleum refining, vapors are reduced to liquids in condensers and coolers are used to lower temperature of liquid porducts to permit safe handling. Principal processes are distillation, cracking, polymerization, alkylation as well as treating and finishing products. The quantity and quality of water required by the entire refinery and in individual operations are affected by the type of refinery process.

Major use of water in power generation and petroleum refinery is for

  • cooling (once-through or circulating water systems)
  • boiler feed for water-steam cycles
  • processing

Sources of water

  • surface water (rivers, lakes, ground water)
  • reused water (cooling cycles, condensate return, make-up water)

Large amounts of high-quality water are used by power plants and petroleum refineries to produce low- and high-pressure steam. Careful condiseration must be given to the selection and treatment of feed water to prevent plant failures and maintain high operational safety.

International and national authorities have defined guidelines with recommendations for a variety of quality parameters to maintain continuous monitoring of the water-cycles. For a safe plant operation the fast and reliable detection of contamination of water-cycles is crucial.

Organic contamination may lead to equipment and/or plant failures caused by

  • Corrosion
  • Sedimentation
  • Scale formation
  • Biological growth

Main source of organics (TOC) in water-cycles is make-up water. The less make-up water is used the lower the risk of contamination of cycle and the higher the benefit from re-use of contendate return and boiler feed water.

Organic compounds most relevant when using surface water for steam generation are

  • High molecular weight Neutrals (Polysaccharides)
  • Low molecular weight Neutrals (Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones)
  • Compounds containing heteroatoms or contain halogens, like chlorine

Polysaccharides are decomposed to low molecular weight neutrals (Glucose and others) and organic acids. Acid conductivity will be raised. Additionally, polysacharides promote biological growth functioning as nutrients.

Monitoring of TOC in make-up water is essential.

  • Oil-in-Water (OIW) Analyzer


    LAR's OIW analyzer QuickOIL is a reliable online measurement system for the determination of oil in water. Due to the analyzers' innovative process design the analyzer determines the OIW content directly without dilution or memory effects. Moreover, it is suitable for every kind of oil, fat and grease - a huge advantage against common OIW methods.

    Easy. Fast. Reliable.

  • Certified Housings for Special Conditions

    In petrochemical or chemical plants explosive gasses, vapours or mist can be present. Therefore, LAR offers a wide range of analyzers with tailor made protective housing in accordance to international standards (IEC 60079-14:2007) and regulations (DIN EN 60079-2:2011-11). These stand-alone analyzers do not necessarily require air-conditioned shelters and they are made specifically for the use within hazardous, potentially explosive and corrosive environments.

  • TOC Analyzer for Pure Water Applications


    AR's TOC analyzer QuickTOCpurity is the most reliable measurement system for pure and ultra pure water applications. Due to a special injection loop, the sample is fully protected against contaminations from ambient air. Hence, the QuickTOCpurity reliably detects the TOC level of pure water.

    The combustion leader in TOC analysis provides maximum reliability and availability, hence also profitability for its operators.

  • TOC AnOnline TOC Analyzer


    LAR's TOC analyzer QuickTOCultra is the most reliable measurement system for the roughest waste water applications. Due to an unrivaled injection and oxidation technique, the QuickTOCultra easily handles sticky, fatty, salty, and high-particle samples unlike other TOC analyzers.

    The combustion leader in TOC analysis provides maximum reliability and availability, hence also profitability for its operators.

  • Online COD Analyzer


    LAR's chemical oxygen demand (COD) analyzer QuickCODultra is an outstanding measurement system for fast and clean COD measurements. Unlike traditional COD analysis methods, the QuickCODultra oxidizes water samples without the need of any hazardous chemicals. Due to the patented high-temperature combustion method, the measurement results are free of chloride inteferences. Moreover, the analyzer easily handles sticky, fatty, salty, and high-particle samples.

    Less chemicals. Simple operation. Save money.

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Cosa Xentaur
4140 World Houston Parkway
Suite 180
Houston, TX 77032